Royal Marines in the Indian Ocean

1st Anti-Aircraft/Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Marines

1st Anti-Aircraft Regiment, R.M.

United Kingdom: February 1940 – January 1941

Royal Marine Group, M.N.B.D.O. I.

The nucleus of the Regiment formed at Fort Cumberland on 5th February 1940.  The Regiment formed with 'A' and 'B' Batteries (heavy) and the 22nd Light Battery, R.M.[1]  Training was conducted at several Army establishments at Yeovil, Carlisle and Arborfield; the latter being where the Regimental H.Q. was established.  In April 1940, a cadre from the Regiment was posted to form the nucleus of the 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M. which formed on 15th April.  One section of ‘A’ Battery was warned to be ready to move from Towyn Practice Camp to Portsmouth where it was to join Force ‘Sturges’ for the British invasion of Iceland.  However, the order was cancelled by The Admiralty on 11th May.  On 8th May 1940, the Regiment moved to the Royal Marine Reserve Depot at Exton, near Exmouth.  Later that month, ‘B’ Battery moved to Air Defence of Great Britain sites in the Cosham area where it came under Army command.  ‘A’ Battery moved from Exton to A.D.G.B. on 7th June, taking up gun sites at Folkestone.  The 22nd L.A.A. Battery went to Durham on 9th June.  The Regimental H.Q. moved to Fort Cumberland, Portsmouth on 2nd July 1940.  ‘B’ Battery moved from Eastleigh to Plymstock on 1st September and from there to Abbey Wood on 12th September.  It then went to Plymouth, arriving on 20th October 1940.[2] 

The first information of a possible move of the M.N.B.D.O. to the Mediterranean was received on 8th November 1940.  At a meeting of the War Cabinet on 18th November, it was decided that the M.N.B.D.O. should be fully equipped and brought up to strength for overseas service by 7th January 1941.  Anti-Aircraft Command was notified by Home Forces on 21st November that all Royal Marines anti-aircraft batteries were being placed at seven days’ notice to revert to Royal Marines control.  A warning order for units to prepare for overseas service was issued on 25th November.  ‘A’ Battery, having spent time at Dover, reverted to the command of the Regiment and moved into billets at Horndean in Hampshire on 20th December 1940.  Regimental H.Q. moved to Eastney on 23rd December.  On 5th January 1941, R.H.Q., ‘A’ Battery and the 22nd L.A.A. Battery embarked at Gourock on troopship H.6, the M.V. Rangitata for Egypt.  'B' Battery, which travelled separately, also embarked for Egypt.  The units of the Regiment sailed as part of convoy WS 6A, later WS 6.  The Regiment arrived at Durban on 26th March 1941 where it disembarked and went to Clairwood Transit Camp.  The R.H.Q. alone embarked in transport J.8, the S.S. Costa Rica, on 29th March which sailed for Egypt on 1st April 1941.  The R.H.Q. disembarked at Port Said on 21st April 1941 and moved to El Tahag.  The Batteries appear to have arrived on or shortly after the same date.[3]

Egypt and Crete: May 1941 – January 1942

Royal Marine Group, M.N.B.D.O. I.

On 2nd May 1941, the 1st Regiment H.Q., ‘B’ Battery and the 22nd L.A.A. Battery were put on four hours’ notice to go to Crete but in the end these units remained in Egypt.  Instead, ‘A’ Battery of the 1st A.A. Regiment together with ‘C’ Battery, elements of the 23rd Light Battery and an advance party from ‘D’ Battery of the 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M., were sent to Crete.  These detachments subsequently suffered heavy casualties, mainly prisoners.  ‘D’ Battery of the 2nd Regiment came under command on 15th May.  The R.H.Q. with ‘B’ and ‘D’ Batteries moved to Abbassia on 20th May while the 22nd L.A.A. Battery remained at El Tahag.  One troop of the 22nd L.A.A. Battery went to Crete on or shortly after 27th May.  The other troop appears to have been sent to help defend the R.A.F. Station at Abu Sueir, west of Ismalia.  The initial order was for the Battery to form an infantry company as part of the Royal Marines Striking Force however this was countermanded on 29th May and the company never formed.  Instead, it seems that the Battery was detailed to man Bofors guns at the airfield.[4]

After the disaster at Crete, the survivors gathered in Egypt.  ‘A’ Battery moved from El Tahag to Abbassia on 30th June 1941 with a total strength of only 89 all ranks and remained under the command of the 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M.  The Battery returned to the 1st A.A. Regiment, R.M. on 15th August and ‘D’ Battery re-joined the 2nd Regiment.  During this period, the 23rd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. came under the command of the 1st Regiment but reverted to the 2nd Regiment on 19th September.  On 20th September, the 22nd L.A.A. Battery left Abbassia for the Alexandria area.  The Regiment was mainly occupied with training and internal security duties.[5]

On 5th November 1941, the first orders were issued for a re-organisation of the Air Defence Brigade.  This was driven, at least in the beginning, by the need to overcome accommodation difficulties when the expected reinforcements for the batteries were posted from the Reinforcement Depot, thought to be happening in mid-January 1942.  The proposal was to regroup the anti-aircraft batteries:

1st A.A. Regiment:   would consist of ‘B’, ‘D’ and 22nd L.A.A. Batteries and to remain in the Cairo area on Internal Security duties.

2nd A.A. Regiment: to consist of ‘A’, ‘C’ and 23rd L.A.A. Batteries.

On 10th December 1941, orders were issued for a ‘temporary reorganisation’ of the 1st R.M. Group.  The reorganisation was driven by the need to have the Group ready for operations in the near future, despite being short of personnel, the necessary reinforcements not being expected for some months to come.  The key points of the changes, which were expected to be temporary, were:

Anti-Aircraft Units:  the re-grouping of the batteries of the 1st and 2nd Regiments, together with the relocation of the 2nd Regiment from Cairo, was to take place shortly, as proposed by the orders issued on 5th November.  Reinforcements training as anti-aircraft gunners were , in the main, to be used to fill out the war establishment of the 1st A.A. Regiment,

2nd A.A. Regiment:  in addition to employment in the anti-aircraft role when needed and in the absence of the 1st Coast Regiment, R.M., the gunners were to be trained to man the coast defence guns then available, i.e. one battery of three 6-inch guns and one battery of four 2-pounder Pom-Poms,

11th Searchlight Regiment:  at some future date, the Regiment was to be prepared to provide a single searchlight battery of 24 lights and two D.E.L. (Defence Electric Light – coast defence searchlights) sections, each of four detachments with one light each.[6]

On 12th December 1941, an order was issued for the reformation of the Heavy and Light Anti-Aircraft Batteries.  The 22nd L.A.A. Battery was to move to Cairo to join the 1st A.A. Regiment, with ‘D’ and ‘B’ Batteries, for internal security duties.  The H.Q. 2nd A.A. Regiment with ‘A’ and ‘C’ Batteries was to move to Moascar; the 23rd L.A.A. Battery was to remain at its then operational sites.  It was thought that equipment for the heavy batteries of the 1st A.A. Regiment, to replace what had been lost in Crete, might arrive during January 1942.  This was followed the next day by an order concerning the posting of reinforcements to the 1st Anti-Aircraft Regiment, R.M.  This order also conformed the ‘regrouping’ of the 1st A.A. Regiment, which with immediate effect, was to consists of ‘B’ and ‘D’ Heavy and the 22nd L.A.A. Batteries; ‘A’ Battery being transferred to the 2nd A.A. Regiment.[7] 

On 14th December, an order was issued for the formation of an “ant-aircraft brigade group”, to include the 1st A.A. Regiment with ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ Batteries.  The three heavy batteries of the 1st H.A.A. Regiment were to be brought up to full strength by reinforcements form the R.M. Base Depot.  In addition, ‘A’ Battery was to be disbanded and all personnel transferred to ‘C’ Battery.  The L.A.A. Battery was formed from the 22nd and 23rd L.A.A. Batteries into a single, four troop battery, retaining the title of the 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M.  The following day, 15th December 1941, the orders for the formation of the Anti-Aircraft Brigade Group were amended.  The major amendments were:

1st A.A. Regiment, R.M.:  the headquarters of this regiment would now consist of the H.Q. 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M., re-titled as the 1st A.A. Regiment, R.M., and commanded by Lt. Colonel C.M. Sergeant.  The Regiment was to be formed of ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ Batteries.

2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M.:  the headquarters of the regiment would be the H.Q. of the formed 1st A.A. Regiment, R.M.

On 20th December 1941, it was confirmed that Royal Marines personnel from the 1st Regiment on guard duties in Cairo would be relieved by men of the 7th Armoured Brigade.  The A.A. Brigade Group was to complete concentration at Tahag and, from this date, effectively removed from operational control by H.Q. B.T.E.  The title of the 1st A.A. Regiment was amended on 27th December to become the 1st Heavy A.A. Regiment, R.M.  This change reflected the fact that the regiment was no longer a mixed regiment, the 22nd L.A.A. Battery now coming under the direct command of the A.A. Brigade Group.  The Group was re-titled as the 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade on 29th December 1941.[8]

1st Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, R.M.

Egypt: December 1941 – January 1942

1st R.M. A.A. Brigade

The 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M., by now relieved of all guard and internal security duties in Cairo, was established at El Tahag where it made ready for transfer overseas.[9]  The 1st R.M. Anti-Aircraft Brigade Group embarked at Suez in ships W.W. 1178 (H.T. City of Paris) and W.W. 522 on 15th January 1942.  The convoy sailed for Ceylon the next day.[10]

Ceylon: February 1942 – March 1943

1st R.M. A.A. Brigade

The SS ‘City of Paris’ arrived at Aden on 21st January with 1,375 personnel of M.N.B.D.O.1, including Headquarters, 1st Royal Marine Anti-Aircraft Brigade and the 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M. on-board, the latter equipped with twenty-four 3-.7-inch guns.   It sailed from Aden in Convoy AJ1-1 along with the SS ‘Yoma and arrived at Colombo on 1st February 1942.  Upon arrival in Ceylon, the Brigade Headquarters was designated as Headquarters, Anti-Aircraft Command Ceylon, responsible for the anti-aircraft defence of the entire island.  The Headquarters, 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M. with ‘D’ Battery and the 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M., less ‘A’ Troop deployed to Trincomalee on 2nd February 1942, arriving there the following day.  Brigade Headquarters with ‘C’ and ‘B’ Batteries and ‘A’ Troop, 22nd L.A.A. Battery remained in Colombo.  ‘B’ Battery moved from Colombo to Trincomalee on 13th February.  ‘A’ Troop, 22nd L.A.A. Battery, in Colombo, was joined by a Royal Navy troop equipped with 12-pounder guns which was attached to the Royal Marines Battery on 21st March.[11]

On 5th and 9th April 1942, Japanese carrier-borne planes attacked Ceylon.  ‘A’ Troop, 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. claimed three hits on enemy aircraft during the raid on Colombo.  ‘C’ Battery fired 252 rounds.  Following the raid on Trincomalee on 9th April, ‘B’ and ‘D’ Batteries, R.M. each claimed two enemy planes destroyed whilst the 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. claimed four.  One plane was claimed destroyed by the 163rd L.A.A. Battery, R.A.[12]  On 18th June 1942, ‘A’ Troop, 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. moved to Puttalam, relieving ‘A’ Troop, 164th L.A.A. Battery, R.A.[13]

The 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade Headquarters returned to the Ceylon order of battle at the end of August or early September 1942, when the headquarters ceased to be H.Q. A.A. Command Ceylon.  The responsibilities for anti-aircraft defence on Ceylon were now split between the newly formed 23rd A.A. Brigade and the 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, the latter being responsible for the northern area based on Trincomalee.  The 1st Regiment at Trincomalee came under the command of the 1st Royal Marine A.A. Brigade.  In the months that followed, the 1st Regiment participated in training, practice firings and exercises.  ‘D’ Battery, R.M. moved from Trincomalee to Colombo, swapping places with ‘C’ Battery, which replaced it at Trincomalee, on 2nd October 1942.[14]

On 29th January 1943, ‘C’ Troop, 22nd L.A. Battery, R.M. moved from Puttalam to Diyatalawa and the Puttalam defences came under the command of the 23rd Anti-Aircraft Brigade.  Elements of the Battery had been at Puttalam since at least 18th September 1942.

‘D’ Battery moved to Katukurunda on 25th January 1943.  The Battery swapped with ‘B’ Battery in Trincomalee on 28th January, taking over the positions of ‘B’ Battery which went to Colombo and Katukurunda.  This move was complete by 2nd February.[15]

‘C’ Battery began moving to the R.M. Camp at Wilson’s Plains on 2nd February, followed by Rear R.H.Q. on 9th February.  The main party of H.Q. Battery, R.M. left Trincomalee for Wilson’s Plains (Moon Plains) on 27th February 1943.  At the newly established camp, the sub-units of the Regiment were to undergo infantry training.  However, from 2nd March 1943, remaining units also began to concentrate at Wilson’s Plains in preparation for transfer to India.  ‘D’ Battery left Trincomalee and the command of the 24th A.A.  Brigade on 29th March 1943.[16]  

India: April – June 1943

1st R.M. A.A. Brigade

On 9th April 1943, the 1st R.M. Brigade H.Q. and the 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. entrained for Bombay.  They were followed the next day by the R.H.Q., ‘C’ and ‘D’ Batteries, 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M.  The Brigade Headquarters arrived at Bombay on 15th April 1943 and assumed command of the air defence of Bombay two days later.  The R.H.Q. of the 1st Regiment arrived on 15th April and ‘C’ and ‘D’ Batteries arrived the next day.  ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘D’ Troops, 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. relieved the 12th L.A.A. Battery, I.A. and took over their twelve guns.  ‘C’ Troop took over the duties as Naval Patrol.  ‘B’ Battery, 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M. remained in Ceylon, moving from Colombo to Trincomalee on 21st April 1943 and coming under the command of the 24th A.A. Brigade the next day.[17]

1st Anti-Aircraft Regiment, R.M.

India: July 1943 – January 1944

1st R.M. A.A. Brigade

On 1st July 1943, the 1st H.A.A. Regiment R.M. reverted to being an ‘anti-aircraft’ regiment, dropping the word “Heavy” from its title, when it took under command the 22nd L.A.A. Battery.  ‘B’ Battery, in Ceylon, became part of the 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M.  The time at Bombay was spent practice firing and in infantry, jungle warfare and mobile training.  The 101st H.A.A. Regiment, R.A. began relieving the 1st Regiment of air defence commitments at Bombay on 15th August.  The 22nd L.A.A. Battery was relieved by the 14th L.A.A. Battery, Indian Artillery.  On 23rd August the 1st Regiment moved to Poona, a projected return to Ceylon having been cancelled.  While at Poona, the 22nd L.A.A. Battery drew eighteen American-made Bofors guns, thus coming becoming an eighteen gun battery in line with the most recent Royal Artillery war establishment.  As part of the 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, the Regiment came under the command of the H.Q. Indian Expeditionary Force on 15th September 1943.  This headquarters was responsible for training selected formations in combined/amphibious operations for future operations then planned against Japanese-held territory.  However, it subsequently became apparent that such operations would not be conducted in the near future and the headquarters was disbanded, merging with that of the XXXIII Indian Corps by November 1943.[18]

The Regiment moved to Bhiwandi, to the north of Bombay, on 28th September 1943 and then to Gulunche between 1st and 4th November.  The 165th Battery, 56th H.A.A. Regiment, R.A. came under command on 4th November.  At Gulunche, the Regiment underwent training and exercises in combined/amphibious operations.  The 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. returned from Madh Island on 17th November and was placed under the command of the 60th L.A.A. Regiment, R.A.  It seems that the 22nd L.A.A. Battery was removed from the Regiment when on 20th December 1943, the Regiment was re-titled as the 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M., with effect from 2nd December.  Training continued until January 1944 when on the 14th of that month the 165th Battery transferred to the 101st H.A.A. Regiment, R.A. and the 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. returned to the 1st Regiment.  On 26th January 1944, the 1st Regiment began moving to Bombay where on 28th January it embarked upon the H.T. Dunnottar Castle for return to the United Kingdom.[19]

United Kingdom: March – April 1944

5th R.M. A.A. Brigade

Having called at Aden on 4th February 1944, the Regiment disembarked at Suez on 8th February before re-embarking in the Dunnottar Castle on 24th February.  The ship eventually sailed from Port Said to the United Kingdom on 1st March.  The Regiment disembarked at Greenock on 24th March and was billeted at Largs.  The Regiment came under the command of the 5th R.M. A.A. Brigade on 27th March and proceeded on leave three days later.[20]

1st Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, R.M.

United Kingdom: May – August 1944

5th R.M. A.A. Brigade

On 1st May 1944, the 1st Regiment began mobilising and with only the three heavy batteries – ‘A’ (from the 2nd A.A. Regiment, R.M.), ‘C’ and ‘D’ – once again it reverted to being titled a ‘Heavy Anti-Aircraft’ regiment.  Three days later the Regiment moved to Clacton-on-Sea.  After some training, extended foreign service leave commenced, the expectation being that the Regiment would be involved in the invasion of France.  This expectation was further reinforced during June when drivers went to Colchester to practice driving into landing craft.  On 19th June, the Regiment moved to Horsham where waterproofing of the vehicles began.  However, this activity was stopped on 24th June when the Regiment was assigned to Operation ‘Diver’ – the scheme designed to counter the V1 flying bomb.  The Regiment moved to Tunbridge Wells on 26th June where it deployed against the V1 under the operational command of the 40th A.A. Brigade, R.A.  Between 26th and 30th June, five V1’s were claimed as destroyed.  The Regiment moved to Hastings on 14th July and then to the Burnham-on-Crouch area on 21st July.  During August, the Regiment fired 164 rounds at V1 targets, bringing two down to explode on the ground.  The total V1s claimed by the Regiment during the time it was assigned to Operation ‘Diver’ was four destroyed in the air and 27 brought down.[21]

North West Europe: August 1944 – May 1945

5th R.M. A.A. Brigade

At the end of August, the move to the Continent began when on 28th August the Regiment went to the South Coast Marshalling Area.  Embarking in stages at Denmead between 1st and 2nd September 1944, the R.H.Q. and ‘A’ Battery, less guns, disembarked at Arromanches on 2nd September and moved to Cherbourg.  ‘C’ and ‘D’ Batteries followed and the Regiment was complete at Cherbourg by 5th September.  Guns and radar equipment began arriving at Cherbourg on 8th September and was completed by 16th September.  On 28th September, the Regiment left for Antwerp and began to deploy north and east of the city on 6th October.  ‘C’ and ‘A’ Batteries operating in the ground role supported the infantry of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division between 7th and 12th October.  On 13th October, several explosions were heard in the Antwerp area, later confirmed to have been V2 ballistic missiles.[22]

The Regiment deployed on the east bank of the Scheldt, north of Antwerp, on 16th and 17th October.  During the re-deployment, orders were received that the Regiment was to cease operating in the anti-aircraft role and was now to operate entirely in support of the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division.  The German defenders holding the neck of the South Beveland isthmus were engaged up until 21st October when the Regiment was ordered to return to anti-V1 operations and to the Brussels outer gun belt.  The Regiment deployed south of Louvain on 22nd October, coming under the operational control of the 101st A.A. Brigade, R.A., and the Regiment destroyed its first V1 since leaving the United Kingdom two days later.  The Regiment remained in the Brussels area until 6th December when it went to the Antwerp area, returning to the direct command of the 5th R.M. A.A. Brigade.  At this time, the Battle of the Bulge was raging and the Regiment, in the infantry role, made ready to defend the approaches to Antwerp in the event of a successful German advance.  On 31st January 1945, ‘C’ Battery moved to the Bergen Op Zoom area on anti-V1 duty, under the operational command of the 107th H.A.A. Regiment, R.A. which appears to have been under the command of the American 30th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade.  The Battery returned to the Regiment on 2nd February but remained on anti-V1 duty.  The Regiment moved to Ostend on 25th February where it came under the operational command of the 75th A.A. Brigade, R.A.  On 7th April, ‘D’ Battery was visited by Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mother of the Belgians.  In what was an unusual engagement, on 18th April ‘D’ Troop, ‘C’ Battery engaged and sank an enemy midget submarine involved in unsuccessful anti-shipping operations in the Scheldt Estuary.  That same day, the Regiment reverted to the operational command of the 5th R.M. A.A. Brigade, although it remained under control of the 75th A.A. Brigade, R.A. for coast defence.  The Regiment provided a Guard of Honour for the Liberation Ceremonial and Service at Zeebrugge on 22nd April.  As part of the ceremony, a plaque (presumably commemorating the famous raid of World War One) hidden during the German occupation was replaced and unveiled on the harbour mole.[23]

United Kingdom: April – December 1945

5th R.M. A.A. Brigade

Towards the end of May 1945, with the Allied victory in Europe secured, the Regiment stood down from operations and began handing in its guns and equipment.  On 29th May, the men embarked at Ostend for the United Kingdom and disembarked at Tilbury the following day before proceeding to Exeter.  Throughout, the Regiment remained under the command of the 5th R.M. A.A. Brigade.  At Exeter, leave was granted and postings to other units began.  In September 1945, men began to be drafted for demobilisation.  On 1st September 1945 at Exeter, 'A', 'C' and 'D' Batteries amalgamated as 'D' Battery, R.M., becoming three troops, 'A', 'C' and 'D'.  Lt. Colonel R. Garret relinquished command on 8th September, handing over to Major W.A. Kinnear until the arrival of Lt. Colonel R.H. Ogden on 17th September, on which date the Regiment moved to South Brent and Ivybridge, near Plymouth.  On 1st October, the 4th L.A.A. Regiment, R.M. was disbanded and absorbed into the 1st Regiment.  The 22nd L.A.A. Battery, R.M. was disbanded at Ivybridge on 29th October and and the personnel posted to 'D' Battery, R.M.  Men continued to be posted away until on 15th December 1945, at Ivybridge the 1st Regiment was disbanded and the remaining men posted to the ‘Z’ Company, 28th Battalion, R.M.  The H.Q. 5th R.M. A.A. Brigade was disbanded the same day.[24]

02 July 2022

[1] “The Royal Marines, 1919-1980”, Ladd J.D., Jane’s (1980)

[2] War diary 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, ADM 202/149;, accessed August 2020; War diary ‘S’ Battery, R.M., ADM 202/166; War diary M.N.B.D.O. I, ADM 202/131

[3] War diary 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, ADM 202/149;, accessed August 2020; War diary ‘S’ Battery, R.M., ADM 202/166; War diary M.N.B.D.O. I, ADM 202/131

[4] Ladd; War diary R.M. Striking Force, ADM 202/139; ADM 202/149

[5] Ladd; ADM 202/149

[6] ADM 202/132

[7] ADM 202/132

[8] ADM 202/132

[9] ADM 202/149

[10] ADM 202/149; War diary M.N.B.D.O. I, ADM 202/133

[11] ADM 202/149

[12] ADM 202/149; War diary 1st H.A.A. Regiment, R.M., ADM 202/153

[13] War diary of the 55th L.A.A. Regiment, R.A., WO 172/1530

[14] War diary 23rd A.A. Brigade, WO 172/3790; War diary H.Q. A.A. Command Ceylon, WO 172/1521; ADM 202/149; War diary 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, WO 172/1522; “The Royal Marines, 1919-1980”, Ladd J.D., Jane’s (1980); ADM 202/153

[15] ADM 202/153

[16] War diary 24th A.A. Brigade, WO 172/3792; ADM 202/153

[17] WO 172/3788; WO 172/3792; ADM 202/153

[18] WO 172/2139; ADM 202/153

[19] WO 172/2139; ADM 202/153; War diary M.N.B.D.O. I, ADM 202/135

[20] ADM 202/153

[21] War diary 1st R.M. A.A. Brigade, ADM 202/292

[22] ADM 202/292

[23] ADM 202/292

[24] ADM 202/292